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    Environmental biotechnology is becoming more and more mature, and the prospect of waste gas biological treatment industry can be expected.

    来源:admin(传梦环保整理发布)   时间:2018-07-26

    Environmental biotechnology is becoming more and more mature, and the prospect of waste gas biological treatment industry can be expected.
    In recent years, with the rapid development of organic industry and petrochemical industry, as well as the uncontrolled emission of organic waste gas, more and more organic waste gas enters the atmosphere, and air pollution is becoming more and more serious. The range and frequency of extreme weather such as acid rain and hail are also increasing. It has a great impact on human life and health. Respiratory diseases and eye diseases are increasing. The new biological treatment technology of organic waste gas has strong and fast adaptability to all kinds of pollutants by microorganism, and can be degraded and transformed as a metabolic substrate. Compared with the conventional exhaust gas treatment technology, organic waste gas biological treatment technology has more obvious advantages.
    1. Introduction of biological treatment technology of organic waste gas
    1.1 basic concepts of biological treatment technology
    Biological purification of organic waste gas is developed on the basis of the mature treatment of wastewater by microorganism. Biological purification is essentially an oxidation decomposition process: active microbes attached to porous and humid media are converted into simple inorganic or cell components with organic components in the exhaust gas as their energy or nutrient for their life activities. The biggest difference between the biological treatment process and the wastewater treatment is that the organic matter in the waste gas is first passed through the mass transfer process from the gas phase to the liquid phase (or the solid surface liquid film), and then the organic component dissolved in the liquid phase is further diffused into the biofilm around the medium, and then captured and absorbed by the microorganism in the liquid phase. In this condition, the pollutants entering the microorganism are decomposed as energy and nutrients in their own metabolic process, and the metabolites produced are partially dissolved into the liquid phase, part of which are used as cell material or cell metabolic energy, and some are precipitated into the air. The organic matter in the exhaust gas is reduced by the above process and purified.
    1.2 principles of biological treatment technology
    There is no unified theory for the study of the mechanism of purifying waste gas by biological method. The theory of biofilm proposed by the "double membrane theory" of adsorption operation has great influence on the world, which is accepted and accepted by most people in Holland. The essence of this method is to transform complex organic matter into simple, non-toxic inorganic substance and other cytoplasm through metabolic activities of microorganisms. It mainly goes through three stages: gas-liquid transformation stage, biosorption and absorption stage and biodegradation stage.
    The so-called biofilm is a viscous membrane structure composed of microbial communities on the surface of solid carriers. In the wetting environment, microbes use organic carbon as energy in the waste gas. In the process of oxidation and decomposition of the organic compounds in the waste gas, the microorganisms can grow, reproduce and form a film with a certain thickness. This biofilm has stronger advantages especially in treating low concentration or biodegradable exhaust gas.
    2. The characteristics of biological treatment of organic waste gas
    Biotreatment of organic waste gas is mainly due to the strong resistance and adaptability of microbes to various pollutants. Through screening culture, autotrophic bacteria or heterotrophic bacteria with strong properties were selected. Under certain environmental conditions, microorganisms can decompose organic pollutants from organic waste gases into simple inorganic substances and cellular components through metabolism. Compared with the traditional waste gas treatment technology, biological treatment technology has the advantages of high removal efficiency, low investment cost, low energy consumption and no two pollution to the atmospheric environment. At the same time, the regeneration of waste gas biotreatment absorbents can be realized directly through the effect of microbes in the absorbent, without special equipment such as physicochemical absorption and adsorption, thus simplifying the process and industrial equipment and reducing operation cost.
    3. The process of biological treatment of organic waste gas
    Biological treatment of organic waste gas is a new bio technology. At the present stage, the main processing techniques include biological filtration, biological trickling and biological washing. At the same time, with the in-depth study of waste gas treatment technology, in addition to the actual pollution waste gas, the solubility and biodegradability of gas are very different. Some new biological treatment methods, composite bioreactor, membrane bioreactor and low pH biofilter have also been paid attention by people, and get good results. Here we mainly introduce the membrane bioreactor to treat organic waste gas.
    The main body of the membrane bioreactor consists of a parallel hollow fiber membrane tube, and the microorganism grows in the liquid phase between the tubes. When the exhaust gas passes through the tube, the gas phase contaminants are transferred from the membrane to the liquid phase through the diffusion effect, and the pollutants are degraded under the action of microbes. By adding absorbents on one side of the membrane, the gas is separated and purified by the absorbents' dissolution of different gases. The absorbents must have high solubility in the volatile organic waste gas, and the other components in the air are basically insoluble. The contact between two phases flow on both sides of the membrane. The contact of the two phases occurs on the interface of the membrane holes or on the surface of the membrane. This can avoid the direct contact of two phases and prevent the occurrence of emulsification.
    The membrane reactor can control the gas independently in a large range. The internal membrane modules can be classified into dense membrane and microporous membrane according to membrane materials. The dense membrane has the selective permeability to the gas, and the permeation rate of each component of the gas mixture is different in the membrane material, and the gas separation and enrichment function can be achieved. The driving force is the pressure difference on both sides of the membrane. The common characteristics of membrane materials are large surface area, mass and heat transfer.

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